seksapil 08.12.2015

The History of Sexuality – Ancient civilizations.

seksapil 08.12.2015

With the Judaism also appeared interesting information about sexuality. In the Old Testament it was defined sexual behavior relevant to this religion. In Exodus (XX, 14) in the Ten Commandments prohibits adultery based on the contents of the Book of Leviticus (xvii, 20) “Whoever commits adultery with his neighbor’s wife will be put to death and the adulterer and the adulteress.” Rigorous was also the approach to sexual promiscuity ” If a man takes a wife and her mother is wickedness: he and she will be burned in the fire, that there be no wickedness among you. “

In Jewish culture, marriage was intended to procreation, and his wife had a “privilege” to share a double bed with other minor wives. The wife, in turn, did not comply with fidelity was publicly stoned to death. A perfect example of this was King Solomon, which is said to have had 700 wives and 300 concubines. In the Song of Songs sexuality is perceived as pleasant and creative impulse (2,3). With Judaism, Christianity took over, eg. the idea that sexual relations were to serve only procreation, the negative attitude to homosexuality and most of the “clearing rules” contained in the book of Leviticus. The influence of the Judeo-Christian religion today is visible in the societies of many countries. [2]

In ancient Egypt it was permitted both incest and circumcision, adopted earlier also in Jewish culture. In Greece, male homosexuality was tolerated among adults as well as for educational purposes in adolescents during puberty. Adult acted as an educator of students (gr. Paidegogos literally leading child) both in terms of intellectual and ethical. In Athens, women could not walk around alone. Such a privilege to have only independent, highly placed socially courtesan called polyether. Often they strolled in the company of wealthy men. Lower-order prostitutes were called pornoi, from whose name the word today took up pornography. Female itself was treated as a second-class citizen, and above all was “gyne” which means “bearer of children.” [1,2]

 In ancient India culture and religion also determined the way they dress, the celebration of prayers, rituals associated with death and sexual behavior. One of the globally well-known example is the Indian treatise on the art of love and sexual behavior – Kamasutra.

Arthur Basham describing India mentions that “sexual rites of Tantric Buddhism canceled all kinds of taboos. They were permitted even incest, because what was a sin for a man mired in ignorance, became a virtue to initiate. During tantric Sabbaths drank alcohol consumed meat, killed animals, and sometimes even human beings – were allowed all the vices which only one can be imagined. But all this was done under the strict control and was available only to people initiated into the sacred rites. Just as the Bengali tantric followers in later times, the followers of the Vajrayana could be in everyday life quite normal people, periodic debauchery was a sacred like a catharsis for their bad psychological tendencies and was able to actually assist in conducting fair in their concept of life. ” [3]

As you can see, in Hinduism there was a tendency for the sanctification of sex – recognition of procreation as one of the main aspects of existence. It followed the religious confirmation of pleasure and the search for pleasure (kama), as one of the three main objectives of life, next to the observance of religious practices (dharma) and fair enrichment (artha). Thus, despite the existence of strong inclination ascetic and the Puritan, they formed the sect in which sexual relations have become almost part of religious ritual.

[1] K. Imieliński, Sexology – Mythology, History, Culture, PWN, Warsaw, 1989, 325-326.

[2] Vera-Gamboa L. Historia de la sexualidad. Rev Biomed 1998; 9: 116-121.

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